| Based on the construction industry data of 30 provinces in China from 2005 to 2016, the main carbon dioxide (CO2) emission sources were identified and used as input indicators to reconstruct the evaluation indicator system of the construction industry total factor carbon productivity (CI-TFCP). The data envelopment analysis method and convergence test method based on production frontier were used to study the CI-TFCP index and its convergence of the provinces from 2005 to 2016. The conclusions are as follows: CI-TFCP in China and its eastern, central and western regions all increase year by year, with the highest average annual growth rate in the east and the lowest in the west. The intensity of materials and energy, technology, education, and energy structure may affect the CI-TFCP index. The average gap between China and its eastern, central and western provinces and the best production frontier provinces, and the gap between the best production frontier and the worst production frontier provinces have been expanding year by year. Based on the above conclusions, suggestions have been proposed for improving the CI-TFCP in China by reducing the intensity of materials, directing R&D investment, and promoting technology diffusion.