快速城市化下福州市的热环境变迁
Thermal Environment Change of Fuzhou City with Rapid Urbanization
投稿时间:2017-03-30  修订日期:2017-07-04
DOI:10.11908/j.issn.0253-374x.2017.09.012     稿件编号:    中图分类号:X87, X821, P237, TP79
 
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中文摘要
      福建省是国务院提出建设实施的首个“国家生态文明试验区”,福州作为福建省省会,其良好的生态环境有着举足轻重的作用。针对福州在发展过程中由非“火炉”城市一跃成为中国新三大“火炉”之首的现象,利用遥感技术反演和提取地表温度及其他城市生态参数,分析它们在1989—2013年间的变化以及“火炉”形成的原因和驱动力。研究发现,在24年间福州的城市热岛效应显著加剧,反映此变化的城市热岛比例指数(URI)从0.29上升到0.53。热场剖面和时空变化分析显示,城市热场的空间结构很大程度上被土地覆盖类型的空间格局所左右。总的看来,城市不透水面面积增大,斑块集聚,植被和水体面积减少且斑块趋于破碎,加上城市通风廊道受阻,导致了福州逐渐演化成为“火炉”城市。该研究为现代城市缓解热岛效应,实现健康可持续发展提供了借鉴和支持。
英文摘要
      Fujian Province is the first ‘national ecological civilization experimental zone’ approved by the State Council of China. As the provincial capital, a good ecological environment for Fuzhou City is always expected. With the progress of urbanization, Fuzhou has witnessed a significant urban thermal environment (UTE) change, leading the city to be reputed by media as the top of the three new ‘furnace cities’ in China. To investigate the process of the city from a non-furnace city to a top furnace city in China, the dynamics of urban biophysical components of Fuzhou and the associated UTE between 1989 and 2013 have been analyzed by remote sensing technology. The result shows that the urban heat island (UHI) effect in Fuzhou greatly aggravates as the UHI Ratio Index (URI) of the city increases from 0.29 to 0.53 in the past 24 years. The spatiotemporal variation analysis on the basis of the thermal profiles reveals that the spatial structure of the UTE is greatly influenced by the spatial pattern of land cover types. On the whole, the increase and amalgamation of impervious surface patches, reduction and fragmentation of vegetation and water covers, and the blockage of the urban ventilation are the main factors contributing to the formation of the ‘furnace city’ of Fuzhou. The study provides a guidance and support for the mitigation of the UHI effect and the achievement of city’s healthy sustainable development.
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