| In this paper, event related potential (ERP) technology is used to identify public spatial identities and explore the effect of semantic consistency or inconsistency on user identification. The experimental materials are derived from GB/T 10001 “Public Information Graphical Symbols for Sign”. Matlab13b and Stata14 are used to process electroencephalograph (EEG) and behavioral data. It is shown that N170, P200, N300 and N400 are induced in the cognitive process of identification, indicating that the subjects experience 4 stages of classification, emotional arousal, logical judgment and semantic judgment in the process of identifying brain cognition. The statistical results show that the differences of N300 induced by the two conditions are significant in the frontal top areas, and the difference in the N400 is significant in the frontal top area, the central top area and the top area. N300 and N400 can be used as a neurometric index to judge whether the identification graph is consistent with the expected semantics.