| In this paper, the SBM undesirable model is used to construct the evaluation model of fuel efficiency in road container transportation, which takes diesel and gasoline as input indicators, road container transportation as expected output indicators, and carbon emissions as undesired output indicators. Afterwards, the fuel efficiency evaluation of highway container transportation in Jiangsu Province from 2003 to 2014 is conducted. The results manifest that the fuel efficiency in southern Jiangsu is the highest, followed by that in northern Jiangsu, and central Jiangsu. The comprehensive fuel efficiency value is generally low, which shows a downward trend of fluctuation, from 0.643 5 in 2003 to 0.611 6 in 2014. The change characteristics of technical efficiency and comprehensive efficiency are basically the same, and the efficiency values show a declining state, while the scale efficiency shows a rising trend. Generally speaking, the scale efficiency is greater than the technical efficiency and greater than comprehensive efficiency. The correlation coefficients of technical efficiency, scale efficiency and comprehensive efficiency are 0.962 and 0.841, respectively, indicating that the main factor for low comprehensive efficiency is its low technical efficiency. Finally, from technical and policy aspects, this paper puts forward some policy suggestions to improve the fuel efficiency of highway container transportation, so as to provide reference for highway transportation energy management.